The COVID-19 pandemic in Romania is part of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached Romania on 26 February 2020, when the first case in Gorj County was confirmed.As of 1 August, the Government of Romania reports 4,342 people institutionalized, a further 20,852 at home under medical supervision, of which 4,742 have tested positive, and over one million tests having been processed.

On 9 March, officials announced the cessation of flights to and from Italy, at all airports in the country, until 23 March. On the same day, the National Committee for Special Emergency Situations has decided to close all schools in Romania, from March 11 until 22, with the possibility of extending the measure. All bus rides and rail transport to and from Italy were suspended from 10 to 31 March. The committee also decided to establish a series of obligations for food units and for public and private providers of passenger transport, such as frequent disinfection of surfaces, avoiding crowds in commercial spaces, frequent disinfection of the passenger compartment in the means of transport, etc.

On 11 March, the Government published a list of fifteen guidelines regarding the “responsible social behavior in preventing the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19)”. The authorities have imposed a ban on sports, scientific, religious, cultural or entertainment events with over 100 participants in closed spaces until March 31. Likewise, the public activities for museums were suspended until March 31. On 12 March, Serbian authorities closed seven border points with Romania to prevent the spread of coronavirus. On the same day, the Romanian Ombudsman asked President Klaus Iohannis to declare the state of emergency .

A fourth Military Ordinance has been issued on 29 March, further strengthening previously imposed fines and restrictions. Two more would soon follow, issued close to the end of the next day; namely, a fifth, extending the ban on international travel, and a sixth, placing Suceava, along with eight adjacent communes, under total quarantine, the first Romanian city to be placed under complete lockdown since the start of the outbreak in late February, holding over a quarter of all infected cases, and about two thirds of all infected medical personnel.

During the second week of March, the Bucharest Stock Exchange recorded losses on all five trading sessions, the main index BET collapsing with 17.6%, the steepest decline since December 2018.On 16 March, the National Bank of Romania announced a reference rate of 4.8242 lei/euro, a historical maximum for the single European currency against the leu. The leu continued its depreciation, reaching a maximum of 4.8448 lei/euro on 17 March. On 9 March, interim Prime-minister Ludovic Orban announced the closure of all schools between 11 and 22 March. The measure targeted all kindergartens, primary, secondary and high schools in Romania, both public and private, according to Education Minister Monica Anisie.The decision affects 3.5 million students.

On 16 March, Anisie announced that schools would remain closed while the state of emergency was in place, at least until after the Easter holidays. On 1 April, in response to a fake news story which had gained traction on social media and was being distributed on WhatsApp, saying that students would have to return to school in less than a week, Anisie and the Ministry of Education issued an official statement condemning the spread of false information and promised to provide in the next few days the date for the re-opening of schools, as well as the national examination.

On 6 April, Anisie announced the cancellation of national exam simulations, as well as of all school competitions and olympiads.The ministry of education said that the Baccalaureate and the National Evaluation would most likely be held in July, all of the examinations excluding the second semester curriculum.The Romanian Football Federation and the Romanian Handball Federation decided to suspend all matches until 31 March. The rugby match between Romania and Belgium, to be held in Botoșani on 14 March, was postponed by Rugby Europe. The IWF Junior World Weightlifting Championships in Bucharest, scheduled for 14–21 March, were cancelled.